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A study reveals that new measurements of the particle may conflict with years of research in physics

A study reveals that new measurements of the particle may conflict with years of research in physics

Written by Julio Garcia G. / science journalist

On many occasions, the theory does not agree with what has been demonstrated experimentally. This may seem like a no-brainer, but physicists work tirelessly – that’s their job. matching what they actually think with his behaviour. This is how science advances.

An example of what is believed and what is, was recently illustrated by an article published in Science Magazinein which a group of researchers (approximately four hundred people) participated. It is suggested that one of the main models describing physics, the Standard Model, could use a more comprehensive review.

The Standard Form Physics is based on the fact that the structure of matter – elementary particles – is described. From an interpretation based on monotheism and symmetry. This model is closely related to mathematics, which seeks to describe it as reliably as possible Quantum world.

Unfortunately Standard Form Neither electromagnetism nor the strong nuclear force explains the structure of atoms. It does not converge with the gravitational interpretation of the universe proposed by Albert Einstein in 1915 Through his general theory of relativity, space-time is closely related to the geometric interpretation of the universe.

In other words: While the Standard Model looks at the very small things, the general theory of relativity and gravitation is responsible for observing and interpreting the universe on a large scale.. This is what planets, stars, galaxies, and black holes tell us. And what physicists have tried to do – so far in vain – It is the unification of the Standard Model with the general theory of relativity.

The curvature of space-time as a result of the action of massive objects such as stars and planets. Photo: shutterstock.

And it turned out that after more than twenty years of careful analysis and scrutiny of the size of a particle called the W boson, this group of researchers had just realized that The aforementioned particle has a greater weight than previously thought.

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Prior to this discovery, and according to the principles of the Standard Model, the W Boson was thought to be important 80000 Megaelectronvolts. Now, from the new data, its weight is about 80433 Mega Electronvoltius.

The W boson is very important because It is one of the intermediate particles of the weak nuclear reaction. The latter is one of the four fundamental forces of nature responsible for the radioactive decay of subatomic particles. Next toThe W boson acts as a carrier of the force between the particles with the Z boson.

Both the W and Z bosons – discovered in the 1970s – weigh much more than protons s neutrons (which are found in the nuclei of atoms) and have a direct effect on the “taste” that subatomic particlestiny particles that give shape to protons and neutrons.

Boson representation. Photo: shutterstock.

And if there are doubts about its significance, W boson, In its role as a messenger particleresponsible for the nuclear processes that produce The sun rises and the particles decay to produce new ones.

Now, from 2002 to 2011, thanks to the Tevatron Collider located in the Fermilab laboratory in the United States (it stopped working precisely in 2011), researchers were able to collect invaluable information, huge amounts of data, containing the W bosons.

With this information in hand, the scientists concluded that There is a clear discrepancy between what the Standard Model expects with the actual value and weight of the Boson W.

In order to observe W bosons in the laboratory, Physicists set out to collide protons with antiprotons at speeds close to the speed of light. The latter is the same as protons, but has a negative charge, so the antiproton is actually antimatter.

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If the new weight attributed to the W boson is confirmed by future experiments, It will be necessary to rethink the main aspects of this modelwhich may lead to the emergence of new physics where More fundamental particles of the W boson must be added to explain the reality.

About what this discovery represents for science, researcher from the Institute of Physics in Cantabria, Alberto Ruiz, in an interview with the newspaper Countrystated that “This new measurement of W mass is the most accurate and complete one made to date. These are amazing results.”

Consolidation of the fundamental forces. Photo: shutterstock

On the other hand, by discovering more fundamental particles – via the Large Hadron Collider located in Geneva, Switzerland -, It will be possible to unify the force of gravity once and for all with the forces and particles that make up the Standard Modelwhich consists of the strong nuclear force, the weak nuclear force, and electromagnetism.

In addition, it is important to note that the universe consists of about 5% visible material (stars, planets, galaxies), for a 24% dark matter and for 71% dark energy.

In terms of understanding visible matter through the Standard Model, physicists have had no problems. however, The composition of dark matter and dark energy is unknown. So, A deeper understanding of the weights and measures of the particles that make up the universe may shed light on unknown aspects of it. 95% are missing.

In science, unlike other disciplines and forms of knowledge, Password does not fit Because this science works through the questions that have been clarified From the verification process, from ideas contradicting reality. When making this assessment between our beliefs and the truth, New quests appear that make him progress in an endlessly exciting way.

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On the other hand, in obscurity and veiled, Progress is inappropriate because beliefs generally do not seek to verify or compare with reality.